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1. Early Times
(1000 BCE - 1900)

2. Establishment of Israel (1880 - 1947)

3. The New State
(1947 - 1973)



The History of Israel - Time Line


1. Early Times (1000 BCE - 1900)


King David
1000 BCE

David rules Judea, first
united kingdom in the
area, from Jerusalem.
King Solomon dies, kingdom
divided into Judea (south)
and Israel (north).

Divided Kingdom
931 BCE

  The Assyrians invade
and destroy the northern
Kingdom of Israel.
The Babylonians conquer
Jerusalem, destroy the first
temple and exile influential
Jews to Babylon.
586 BCE

  The Persians defeat the
Babylonians, allow Jews
to return to Jerusalem.
Alexander the Great
destroys the Persian
Empire, conquers Judea.
332 BCE
  The Maccabees revolt
against the Greeks, Judea
once again independent
Jewish state.
The Romans conquer
Greek Empire including
Judea, Jews granted some
measure of autonomy.
63 BCE
  Herod The Great
administers the Roman
province of Judea.
Titus quashes yet another
Jewish rebellion, Jerusalem
reduced to rubble.
Destruction of Jerusalem
70 AD
  Bar Kochva Revolt, many
Jews deported or killed by
Romans, Judea renamed
to "Palaestina".
Byzantine Era, Roman
Emperor Constantine makes
Christianity official religion
of entire empire.
Byzantine Era
  Persians retake Jerusalem,
Byzantine emperor defeats
Persians, kills Jews, burns
Arab Caliph Omar invades
Jerusalem, builds Al-Aqsa
mosque on ruins of
Jewish temple.
Arab Rule
  Jerusalem conquered
by Cairo-based Fatimid
Fatimids ejected by the
Seljuk Turks, end of Arab
Seljuk Turks

The Crusaders conquer
Jerusalem, massacre many
Jews and Muslims.

Kurdish general Saladin,
ruler of Egypt and Syria,
captures Jerusalem.
  Mamelukes take over
Egypt, eject last Crusa-
ders from the Holy Land.
Ottoman Turks take Cairo,
rule entire Middle East from
Constantinople (Istanbul)
for 400 years.
Ottoman Empire

2. The Establishment of Israel
(1880 - 1947)


  First major wave of
European Jews immigrate
to Palestine.
First Zionist Congress in
Basel found World Zionist
Organization chaired by
Theodor Herzl.
First Zionist Congress
  Second wave of Jewish
immigration from eastern
British government issues
the Balfour Declaration pro-
mising a "Jewish National
Home" in Palestine.
Balfour Declaration
  The British General
Allenby conquers
Establishment of the man-
dates for Syria, Mesopota-
mia (Iraq) and Palestine.
Mandates Established
  Jewish-Arab cooperation
breaks down, Arab
nationalists turn their
attention to Jerusalem.
Arab rioters attack Jewish
population in Jerusalem,
April 1920.
First Arab Riots
  First elections to Jewish
parliament, "Knesset"
take place in April 1920.
In May 1921 Arab
Nationalists attack Jews in
Jaffa, violence spreads
throughout Palestine.
More Arab Riots
  Mandate for Palestine,
Jewish national home con-
firmed by predecessor to
UN, League of Nations.
Transjordan is severed from
Palestine, 3/4 of mandate's
area excluded from poten-
tial Jewish homeland.
  British attempts at estab-
lishing Jewish-Arab power
sharing in Palestine fail due
to Arab rejection.
The Hebrew University
founded at Mount Scopus,
east of Jerusalem, Juni 1925
Hebrew University
  Knesset authorized to
collect taxes from Jewish
community. Responsible for
education, health, welfare.
Jewish communities all over
Palestine under attack.
Hebron Jews massacred.
Renewed Arab Attacks
  Britain tightens rules for
Jewish immigration in
reaction to Arab violence.

Hitler's rise to power in
Germany results in a spike
in Jewish emigration from

Jewish Immigration
  Al-Husseini clan founds
Palestine Arab Party, and
armed militia, "al-Futuwwa"
to fight Jews and British.
Arabs mount general
strike, attack Jews all over
Palestine. Jewish defense
partly effective.
The Arab Revolt
  Arabs reject British Peel
Commission's plan to create
Jewish state in 20% of
Palestine, Arab in 80%.
Arab-Nazi cooperation,
Germany supplies weapons
for Palestinian Arab's fight
against Jews.
Arab-Nazi Alliance
  Attacks on Jewish civilians
reach new high. Jews stage
counterattacks against Arab
Britain proposes plan
unacceptable to Jews, then
abandons Jewish National
Home altogether.
Jewish National
Home in Peril
  Jews allied with Britain
during war, Palestinian Arabs side with Nazi-
Despite Jewish war effort,
Britain blocks refugees from
entering Palestine. Jewish
sabotage against British.
Jewish Refugees
from Europe
  The UN decides to partition Palestine into a Jewish and
an Arab state. Jews accept,
Arabs reject the plan.

3. The New State (1947 - 1973)

Arabs attack Jewish commu-
nities all over Palestine. Civil
war breaks out, many Arabs
flee ahead of Arab invasion.
Civil War in Palestine
  Israel attacked by armies
of Egypt, Jordan, Syria,
Lebanon and Iraq. Cease-
fire agreed in spring 1949.
More than 700.000 Arabs
flee new State of Israel.
Almost as many Jews flee to
Israel fromArab countries.
Arab and Jewish Refugees
  Egypt and Jordan support
guerrilla attacks into Israel
from Gaza and West Bank.
Israel rutinely retaliates.
Egypt's blockade of the Red
Sea and nationalization of
the Suez Canal spurs an
international crisis. Israel
invades Gaza and the Sinai.
Sinai Crisis
  The PLO is founded in
order to "liberate" Palestine
from the Zionists.
Arab forces build up all
around Israel threatening to
attack. Israel strikes first,
defeats Egypt, Jordan and
Syria in six days.
Six Day War
  UN calls for negotiated
solution, Arabs reject
negotiations, recognition,
peace with Israel.
Egypt shells Israeli forces in
Sinai, who respond with air
and commando raids.
War of Attrition
  PLO attacks Israelis and
Jewish civilians all over
the world.
Egypt and Syria initiate
coordinated surprise attack
on two fronts, Israel
repels invaders.
Yom Kippur War
4. Peace with the Arabs?
(1977 - 2000)

  Egypt and Israel sign peace
deal, Israel withdraws from
demilitarized Sinai.
After years of attacks
from Lebanon, Israel
invades and ejects PLO.
The Lebanon War
  Riots brake out in Gaza and
West Bank. Israel tries to
suppress the uprising.
There are many losses.
PLO supports Iraq as it
invades Kuwait, launches
rockets at Israel, which re-
frains from retaliating.
The Gulf War
  Israel and its Arab
neighbors meet in Madrid
and later in Washington
with limited results.
A breakthrough is made
between Israel and PLO. A
peace process is launched.
The Oslo Process
  Palestinian Authority assu-
mes power over some areas
in Gaza and West Bank.
Jordan becomes the second
Arab country to make peace
with Israel.
Peace with Jordan
  Israel hands over further
terriroty to the Palestinian
Israel's prime minister
Yitzhak Rabin is shot by
radical, Orthodox Jew.
Murder of Rabin
  Several additional accords
are signed. Peace process
continues at slow pace.
Israel pulls out all troops
from Lebanon, ending 22
years of military presence.
Israel Leaves Lebanon
  Israel refuses to implement
withdrawals citing Palestini-
an failure to honor agree-
Israel makes offer to
Palestinians, who reject it,
make no counteroffer and
leave negotiations.
Camp David, Breakdown of the Peace Process

5. The Post-Oslo Era (2000 - today)

The Second Intifada
Palestinians launch wave
of suicide bombs and other
attacks on Israelis at an
unprecedented level.
Israel reinvades most major
Palestinian cities on West
Bank in order to destroy
terrorist infrastructure.
"Defensive Shield"
Israel's Security Barrier
Israel constructs barrier
on West Bank preventing
suicide bombers from reach-
ing Israeli civilians.
World's major powers
sponsor phased peace plan.
Phase one is never
"The Roadmap for Peace"
Withdrawal from Gaza
Israel unilaterally withdraws from Gaza Strip, evacuating 8000 Jewish settlers.  
Hamas wins Palestinian
parliamentary elections,
attempts to share power
with Fatah.
Hamas Assumes Power
The Second Lebanon War
Hizbollah attack on Israeli
soldiers and civilians leads
to major one-month military
operation by Israel.
Heavy internal fighting
among Palestinians. Hamas
ousts Fatah from power in
Gaza in violent coup.
Hamas' Takeover of Gaza
The Gaza War
Increasing rocket attacks
from Gaza on Israel's civilian
population spurs military
offensive against Hamas'
positions in the strip.

Chapter 5 in the Chronological Presentation, covering the events of the Post-Oslo Era (the period from September 2000 until today) is under development.



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